We people interested in culture tend to see the world through the lense of intercultural difference. Therefore, we also tend to claim that the characteristics of good leadership depend on the cultural context in which they are shown. On the one hand, this is true, as for example the GLOBE Study has shown: Leadership behaviors are indeed dependent on the cultural context. On the other hand, next to this emphasis on intercultural differences in leadership, are there commonalities in leadership behaviors found across cultures? A recent study has shown that there are. The authors have identified 10 effective leadership behaviors and 9 ineffective leadership behaviors valid across cultural contexts.

According to the study, effective leadership behaviors across cultures are:
1. Providing help and support to associates
2. Giving recognition
3. Delegating to and empowering associates
4. Being responsive to personal/work situations of associates
5. Fighting in the interest of own department and associates; addressing development needs
6. Being open and approachable to associates; building trusting relationships
7. Including associates in decision-making and problem-solving
8. Good at planning and organizing
9. Using a personal approach to managing and leading associates
10. Keeping associates well informed on decisions, changes, and other matters affecting them

Ineffective leadership behaviors across cultures are:
1. Showing lack of care and concern for well-being of associates
2. Autocratically making and imposing decisions without involvement
3. Being unfair, inconsiderate, inconsistent, selfish and self-serving
4. Engaging in activities that undermine associates or others
5. Showing lack of ownership, accountability, and willingness to take responsibility
6. Withholding important information and feedback
7. Exhibiting a close mind and a negative approach
8. Intimidating or de-valuing people
9. Depriving associates of praise, encouragement, support, training, or development

These results were found based on a review of previous leadership-studies conducted in Germany, the UK, and Romania; countries with varying cultural dimensions, e.g. regarding power distance and individuality. Nevertheless, the number of countries considered is rather small, and no non-European countries were considered. Therefore, the results need to be read with some caution.